The quality of the printed product, as well as the curing method, depend on the properties of the spray material. The first materials used in these techniques were waxes. In pharmaceutical technology, they were used in the formulation of modified-release dosage forms and, today, they have also been used in 3DP technology. The molten wax was sprayed onto the construction platform in a heated chamber to prevent rapid solidification.
Matrix tablets containing beeswax and fenofibrate were prepared by Kyobula et al. It was found that the cell diameter of the honeycomb-shaped geometry and the wettability of the material affected the dissolution profile of constant-weight tablets. The amount of drug released increased with the diameter and surface of the diaper in the case of medium-sized honeycomb-shaped channels. For the smaller dimension of the diaper, the penetration of the dissolution medium was insufficient, while the surface of the tablets with the wider diaper was smaller than the medium-sized structure, resulting in a decrease in drug dissolution in both cases.
This phenomenon can allow the production of personalized medicines when applied with a combination of different materials of different geometries. Personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the health sector, since its objective is to adapt medication to a particular individual, taking into account that person's physiology, response to drugs and genetic profile. Many technologies are emerging to bring about this paradigm shift, moving from conventional “one size fits all” medicine to personalized medicine, the main one being three-dimensional (3D) printing. The main 3D printing technological platforms researched in the pharmaceutical sector include inkjet printing, binder injection, molten filament manufacturing, selective laser sintering, stereolithography and pressure-assisted microsyringing.
A possible future application of this technology could be in a clinical setting, where prescriptions could be dispensed based on individual needs. This manuscript points out the various 3D printing technologies and their applications in research for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, along with their advantages and disadvantages. It also presents its potential in personalized medicine by individualizing dosage, release profiles and incorporating multiple drugs into a polypill. It also provides an idea of how it affects various populations.
An approach to how it can be used in a clinical setting is also highlighted. In addition, several challenges are identified that it faces, which must be overcome for the success of this technology in personalized medicine. The most important achievements of 3D printing in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented in Fig. The main advantage of the injection printing method in pharmaceutical applications is its high precision in creating 3D pharmaceutical products.
In this sense, the 3D printing technique allows alternative manufacturing routes for advanced drug delivery systems with flexibility in creating oral dosage forms with complex geometry. One of the main potentials of 3D printing in the pharmaceutical sector is its ability to adapt dosage forms to people. Both methods have gained popularity for manufacturing 3D drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. The equipment for 3D printing a drug is much smaller than that of a factory or manufacturing plant and can be printed in small batches.
The filaments with a homogeneous metal filler were obtained by hot melt extrusion and 3D models of the nose and ears were printed. By reviewing part of the literature, a brief description of the most relevant 3D printing techniques adopted in the pharmaceutical industry is presented, such as the technique based on extrusion, powder bedding and material injection. Pardeike J, Strohmeier DM, Schrödl N (201) Nanosuspensions as advanced printing ink for accurate dosing of poorly soluble drugs in personalized medicines. In addition, the pros and cons of several platforms must be analyzed to develop a 3D printer ideal for a hospital environment.
So far, there are several FDA-approved 3D printed medical devices on the market, but only one FDA-approved 3D printed pharmaceutical product (Spritam) is available. The main characteristics of a 3D medical product, such as the drug load and its release rate, can be precisely modified by printing parameters such as manipulating the number of layers printed for a given area or changing the entire printing area. Current research on 3D printing technology as a tool within pharmaceutical research and production has focused on small-scale manufacturing to allow individualization and use, as well as to increase compliance. The speed of sintering, which influences the porosity of printed matter, and the efficiency of the printing process, can be increased by multiplying laser beams, as in 3D metal sintering printers.
Therefore, education and surgical planning are believed to be one of the most researched fields of 3D printing technology. Skowyra J, Pietrzak K, Alhnan MA (201) Manufacture of customized extended-release prednisolone tablets for patients using 3D printing using fused deposition modeling (FDM). .