One of the possible applications of 3D printing that have emerged is surgical planning. This involves studying the anatomy and physiology of defects in complex organs, such as the brain or heart, or in anatomical specimens, such as the pelvis or spinal cord, and using the information to plan surgery. The goal of drug development should be to increase efficacy and reduce the risk of adverse reactions, an objective that can be achieved by applying 3D printing to produce personalized drugs. However, various 3D printing techniques and materials have been successfully applied to create a vasculature as simple as a single channel, as well as more complex geometries, such as bifurcated or branched channels.
To overcome these problems, 3D bioprinting, which is used for bone ET, has several benefits compared to conventional TE methods, such as providing sufficient mechanical support during the regeneration of injured tissues. These developments, together with the fact that medical device manufacturers are increasingly using 3D printing to reduce costs and more consistently meet supply demands, mean that more and more supplier organizations are taking a closer look at the technology. This development takes a while, so to help, cell tubes and other biomaterials are printed to help deliver vital nutrients to the surrounding printed environment. Several types of additive manufacturing techniques have been developed for the selective modeling of cells and biomaterials for the manufacture of viable tissue constructs, such as 3D inkjet-based bioprinting (Cui and Boland, 200), 3D extrusion-based bioprinting (Jones, 201), laser-assisted 3D bioprinting (Keriquel et al.
In research centers and hospitals around the world, advances in 3D printing and, more specifically, in bioprinting offer new options for treatment and scientific study. Researchers hope that 3D printing of human cartilage will lead to implantable replacements for trauma victims who need reconstructive surgery. An important feature of inkjet printing is its ability to allow the formation of complex multicellular patterns and constructs through the simultaneous printing of multiple types of cells, biomaterials, etc. This review aims to focus on the different strategies applied to the bioprinting of natural and synthetic polymers, as well as their applications in different types of tissue engineering with respect to the 3D printing of various tissue models, such as bone, skin, heart tissues and Cartilaginous, etc.
As mentioned, 3D printers print layers, and because the skin has several layers, organs with different types of cells, it adapts well to this type of technology.